HANIF FARCHANI. Qualitative Risk Assessment on Introduction of Rabies from Sumatera Island to Kepulauan Riau Province. Supervised by ETIH SUDARNIKA and MIRNAWATI SUDARWANTO.
Rabies is a zoonotic disease caused by virus which could be transmitted from animals to humans. It occurs in more than 150 countries in the world. Rabies is potential to cause death in animals and humans. Kepulauan Riau Province is a rabies-free areas. Nevertheless, this province has a threat to be infected with rabies fom Sumatera Island. Kepulauan Riau Province prohibits the entrance of animal transmitting rabies since Bali had rabies outbreak in 2008.
Qualitative risk assessment on introduction of rabies from Sumatra Island to the Kepulauan Riau Province was conducted to assess the likelihood of entry and spread of rabies, especially in Bintan Island through dogs. The aim of this study was to estimate the likelihood of introduction risk of rabies. The risk assessment was done by following the import risk analysis standards of the OIE (World Organization for Animal Health). The method of risk assessement was refered to Biosecurity Australia. Uncertainty was refered to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The primary data were obtained by direct observation and in-depth interviews with experts (expert opinion) and key informants (quarantine officers, veterinarians, related institutions, dog owners, security officers, the ship captains, and baggage workers). Published or unpublished scientific reports, surveillance results, laboratory test results were used as secondary data.
In the release assessment, it was found that the purpose of dogs entering the island was mostly to be used as pet animals and hunter dogs. The dogs entered the Bintan Island through port point (sea point). The likelihood of release assessment was high. This high likelihood of release assessment involved mainly endemic rabies status of Sumatera Island, a lot of number bite cases‟ reports, low of vaccination coverage, and low of public awarenesss. This release assessment had low uncertainty.
In the exposure assessment, the likelihood of exposure was divided into two ways, i.e., through pet dogs and hunter dogs. The likelihood of exposure in the pet dogs was very low because the dogs were kept restricted in houses or fenced areas and the implementation of dog health management was good. These caused very low contacts (exposures) to humans, susceptible animals, and other dogs. Nevertheless, the likelihood of exposure in hunter dogs was high because of the contacts between the hunter dogs and humans, susceptible animals, and other dogs were high. The hunter dogs were not kept restricted and their health management was less concerned. At the time of hunting, the possibility of interaction or exposures of hunter dogs to humans, other hunter dogs, and wild animals was high. The frequence of hunting increased the spread of rabies.
The consequence assessment involved direct and indirect consequences. The likelihood of consequence assessment was very high. The direct consequence involved death in humans and animals. The indirect consequences included high cost of control and eradication measures. Furthermore, rabies could cause negative impacts on international trade, tourisms, and community.
The risk estimate on the introduction of rabies from Sumatera Island to Kepulauan Riau Province was very high which was the results of release assessment, exposure assessment, and consequence assessment. The uncertainty level was low. In order to reduce the high risk, it was necessary to implement the risk management. The risk management included the issue of entry permit of dogs or rabies transmiting animals into Kepulauan Riau Province which stated that the animals come from free rabies area with the presentation of veterinary health certificate and have been vaccinated against rabies, control of hunting activities by veterinary officers, and increase of public awereness through communication, information, and education on rabies using printed and electronic media.
Key words: dog, rabies, risk assessment
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