Sekilas Peternakan

Informasi Dunia Peternakan, Perikanan, Kehutanan, dan Konservasi

Production Performance of Local Rabbit Fed with Commercial Feed and Substituted with Bean Sprouts’ Waste

IRINE FATKHATUL ZULFA. Production Performance of Local Rabbit Fed with Commercial Feed and Substituted with Bean Sprouts’ Waste. Supervised by MUHAMAD BAIHAQI and MOHAMAD YAMIN.

Rabbit (Orictolagus cuniculus) is small livestock animal that has great potential as meat-producer for its prolific characteristic, rapid growth rate and capability to eat agricultural waste. Bean sprouts wastes were from market that can still be used as feed source for its nutrition content. The aim of this research was to study production performance of local rabbit fed with bean sprouts’ waste. Twelve local rabbit fryers age 12 weeks with average body weight of 747±104.53 g used in this study. There were three treatments that consisted of 100% commercial feed as control treatment (P0); 30% bean sprouts’ waste and 70% commercial feed (P1); and 50% bean sprouts’ waste and 50% commercial feed (P2). The result showed that different treatments had no effect on dry matter and crude protein consumption, TDN, and daily weight gain. In conclusion, bean sprouts’ waste can be used as rabbit feed substitution up to 50% without giving negative effect on its production performance.

Key words: beans sprouts waste, local rabbit, production performance


Potential Roselle Seed Meal for Growth and Immunity in Striped Catfish

ALLAMANDA CATHARICA. Potential Roselle Seed Meal for Growth and Immunity in Striped Catfish. Supervised by NUR BAMBANG PRIYO UTOMO and SRI NURYATI.

The main constraint on aquaculture is the availability of the raw material feed and disease attack. Therefore, the availability of high-quality feed that is not only able to increase fish growth but also capable of increasing absolute fish immunity must exist. Roselle seeds, with relatively vitamins especially tocopherol has a potential as an alternative ingredient. This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary level of roselle seeds meal on growth performance, immune responses and resistance of striped catfish to Aeromonas hydrophila challenge.

In the first experiment, five diets were formulated to contain 0 (control), 2, 4, 6 and 8% roselle seeds meal per 100 g diets. Thirty five fishes with 1.33-1.51 g initial body weights were cultured in 15 aquarium with 60x30x35 cm dimention for 40 days. Fish were fed on these diets two times a day until apparent satiation. Feed consumption, lipid and protein retention increased with increasing doses of roselle seed meal (p<0 .05="" and="" catfish="" differences="" efficiency="" feed="" found="" growth="" i="" immune="" in="" measurement="" no="" of="" on="" rate="" resistance="" responses="" results="" significant="" striped="" study.="" survival="" the="" this="" to="" were="">Aeromonas hydrophila
challenge, it was found that there was no significant difference between treatments (p<0 .05="" 4="" applied.="" based="" because="" best="" c="" can="" diets="" dose="" experiment="" experimental="" for="" highest="" is="" it="" meal="" o:p="" of="" on="" overall="" protein="" provide="" results="" retention="" roselle="" second="" seed="" showed="" so="" study="" that="" the="" then="" this="" treatment="" was="">
The second experiment, thirty five fishes with 1.33-1.51 g initial body weights were cultured in 18 aquarium with 60x30x35 cm dimention for 30 days. Fish were fed on these diets two times a day until apparent satiation. Fish were assigned randomly to six feeding regimes, namely, a control (positive and negative control), fed continuously with commercial diets for 20 days. Treatment of A, fed continuously with experimental diets for 20 days. Treatment of B, fed with commercial diets on the first five days, then fed with experimental diets day 6 to day 15 and the commercial diets on the last five days. Treatment of C, fed with experimental diets on the first five days, commercial diets on the second five days, experimental diets on the third five days and commercial diets on the last five days. Treatment of D, namely the provision of commercial diets in the first ten days and the experimental diets in the last ten days. All treatments at day 21 challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila, except in the negative control.

The results showed no significant differences on feed intake (p<0 .05="" and="" between="" different="" efficiency="" feed="" growth="" i="" meanwhile="" not="" performance="" rate="" significantly="" survival="" treatments="" was="">p
<0 .05="" 15="" 6="" after="" and="" b="" based="" best="" between="" beyond="" challenge="" commercial="" control="" day="" days.="" days="" diets="" differences="" experimental="" fed="" first="" five="" found="" highest="" i="" immune="" is="" last="" namely="" of="" on="" rate="" responses="" results="" showed="" significant="" survival="" test="" the="" then="" to="" treatment="" treatments="" with="">Aeromonas hydrophila after injection the average of 62.1% (p<0 .05="" 15="" 4="" 6="" a="" and="" based="" best="" commercial="" conducted="" day="" days="" diets.="" diets="" dose="" experimental="" feeding="" first="" five="" found="" frequency="" is="" last="" meal="" o:p="" of="" on="" overall="" results="" roselle="" seed="" study="" that="" the="" to="" with="">

Keywords: growth performance, immunity, roselle seed meal, striped catfish


reference of Additional Feed Vegetables Waste on Timor Deer (Rusa timorensis) in Captivity and Its Effects on Eat Behaviour

RIRIN RIHATNI. Preference of Additional Feed Vegetables Waste on Timor Deer (Rusa timorensis) in Captivity and Its Effects on Eat Behaviour. Under supervision of ACHMAD MACHMUD THOHARI and YANTO SANTOSA.

Feed is the most important factors to determine the success of a captivity. Additional for age can be provided to deer to solve the limitation of grass availability as the primary feed for timor deer. Additional vegetables waste have advantage because the price is relatively cheap. Considering the problem, this research was conducted in the aim to identify kind of vegetable waste which is most preferred by the timor deer and any typical behavior which is possible showed by deer possibility as a negative impact of additional vegetables waste as feed.

Research was held in captivity deer of Dramaga Research Forest in June until July 2012. Four individual timor deers (2 adult males and 2 adult females) were observed and four type of feed (mixed grass, corn skin, cabbage waste and chicory waste) were provided as additional for ages. There were two observation techniques used, they were supplementary feed preference and eating behavior. In feed preference, three types of vegetable waste and mixed grass as primary feed were given simultanously to deer . Two kilograms of each feed type were given daily to each. While in eat behavior, for age were given based on treatment. Every treatment consisting of 3 kg mixed grass and 3 kg vegetable for each pair deer.

The data of feed preference were analysed by Index Nue. The result showed that skin of corn was preferred by both male and female deer with w value sequently 1,32 and 1,36. Afterward, vegetable waste feed affected eating behavior of the timor deer. The period of eating relatively shorter on the type of supplementary feed which was most preferred by both male and female timor deer, and longer on the type of supplementary feed which was not preferred. Chi-Square test showed that there was a significant difference, it showed the value of count χ² (161,387) was larger than the value of table χ² (7,378). Moreover, typical behavior as a negative affect from leftover cabbage as supplementary feed was found. It happened to male timor deer which fell asleep and drooling while sleeping. This was because cabbage contained a gas that could increase the gas in the stomach, so the timor deer's energy focused on the digestive system and caused male timor deer asleep.

Key word : Timor deer (Rusa timorensis), captivity, feed, vegetable waste, eat behavior.


Profile of Dairy Cattle Erythrocytes which Chronical Infected by Babesia sp

HERU WIRZAL KESATRIA. Profile of Dairy Cattle Erythrocytes which Chronical Infected by Babesia sp. Supervised by AGUS WIJAYA and LENI MAYLINA.

Babesiosis is an endoparasite disease which is infected by Babesia sp. This genus parasite is classified as an intracellular obligate parasite. Babesia sp. can cause the disease which clinical symptoms such as anemia, fatigue, and weakness in animal. This research aim is to obtain the profile erythrocytes of dairy cattle which is chronically infected by Babesia sp. Information obtained can be used as a basis for performing a treatment action and prevention of Babesiosis on dairy cattle. Blood sample was taken at Kunak dairy cattle Cibungbulang, Bogor, West Java. Blood samples were collected from the coccygea vein or jugularis veins. Twenty one dairy cattles used in this research where divided into 2 groups, namely 6 tails as a control while 15 tails were chronical by infected Babesia sp. The result showed that the average number of erythrocytes (5.17 ± 0.97 x106/μL), the concentration of hemoglobin (9.39 ± 1.58 g/dL) and level of hematocrit (28.07 ± 4.67 %). Based on erythrocytes index dairy cattles that suffer from Babesiosis showed the decreasing of erythrocytes, concentration of hemoglobin and hematocrit values where leads to anemia normocytic normochromic.

Keywords: Babesia sp., erythrocyte profile, dairy cattle.


Diversity of Flies Species in Layer Poultry Farm

IRENE SOTERIANI UREN. Diversity of Flies Species in Layer Poultry Farm. Supervised by UPIK KESUMAWATI HADI and SUPRIYONO.

Flies are common parasites that easily can be found in layer poultry farm. The aim of this research was to analyze the diversity of species, the relative abundance, and the dominance of flies in layer poultry farm. The samples were collected from Peternakan Ayam Petelur KM 45, Kemang, Bogor, by using the sweeping net. The collected samples were identified and analyzed to determine the density of flies. Fly density expressed with relative abundance and species domination. The result showed there were 4 species of flies found in layer poultry farm. They were Musca domestica, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya saffranea, and Hermetia illucens. M. domestica were the most dominant species. Species domination in sequences were M. domestica (42.13%), C. Megacephala (33.71%), H. illucens (18.26%), and C. saffranea (5.90%). The last three species were commonly found along with M. domestica.

Keywords: diversity, flies, layer poultry farm, species domination


Physiological Response and Blood Profile of Garut Rams with Feed and Different Feeding Time Management

BIMA SAPUTRA. Physiological Response and Blood Profile of Garut Rams with Feed and Different Feeding Time Management. Supervised by SRI RAHAYU and DEWI APRI ASTUTI.

Feed and feeding time management can influence change physiological respon of sheep. This research aimed to evaluate phsyiological response and blood profile of garut rams with mung bean sprout waste as subtitution of grass and different feeding time management. This research used 16 garut rams (I0) with 2 factors and 4 replicates. The first factor was different feed persentage consist of R1 (consentrate 60% + grass 40%) and R2 (concentrate 40% + mung bean sprout waste 40%). The second factor is different feeding consist of P (morning feeding time) and S (afternoon feeding time). Pshyiological response that were observed are respiration, heart rate, and rectal temperature. Blood profile that were observed are haemoglobin, hematocrit (PCV/Packed Cell Volume), eritrosit, leucocyte, and leukocyte differentiation. Data processed with ANOVA and Duncan analysis. The result showed that mung bean sprout makes significant effect (P<0 .01="" affecting="" afternoon.="" and="" bean="" blood="" but="" cell="" change="" different="" eosinophils="" feed="" feeding="" garut="" given="" grass.="" heartbeat="" hematology="" higher="" in="" influence="" lower="" makes="" management="" morning="" mung="" not="" o:p="" of="" on="" physiological="" profile="" rams="" rate="" red="" respon="" sheep.="" sheep="" sprout="" than="" the="" time="" treatment="" value="" was="" waste="" were="" with="">
Key words: Blood profile, feed, feeding, garut rams, physiological response.


Physical Characteristic and Palatability of Rabbit Meatball at Different Postmortem Time

Physical Characteristic and Palatability of Rabbit Meatball at Different Postmortem Time
Hikmah, N., Komariah, and M. Duldjaman

Bakso is a finely comminuted boiled Indonesian meat product that is traditionally made of starch, salt and emulsified prerigor or early postmortem meat. Rabbit meatball is one alternative to improve meat rabbit consumption. Rabbit is an animal which have a great potential to be breeded as meat source. There are many advantages we could gain by consuming rabbit meat, i.e. 20,1% of protein and low cholesterol level of 53 mg/100g or 0.1%, so it can be promoted as healthy meat. The physical characteristic of rabbit meatball became important to be analyzed, by it`s the quality, because it`s reason why people would like the rabbit meatball. This research was conducted at Large Ruminant Laboratory, Department of Animal Science and Production, Faculty of Animal Science and Centre of Food and Nutrition (CFN), Bogor Agricultural University. Research has been done from December until March 2010. Materials that use in this research were rabbit from Darruljannah, Cibatok. Flavor adding with tapioca starch as an extender, salt, ice, and other flavor. The parameter stands for pH and DMA meat, elasticity and rendement. Organoleptic test stands for texture, smell, elasticity, colour, taste, and general perception. The research were using three, six, and nine hours postmortem and grouped based on it`s day, which is 1, 2, and 3 day. The research was used the Randomized Block Design. Organoleptic were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis. The average of pH, water holding capacity, elasticity and cooking loss meatball on the study 6,16, 9,89 %, 38,04 % and 131,70 %. The result indicate that postmortem up to nine hours was not influenced significantly of physical characteristics and organoleptic rabbit meatball.
Keyword : Physical characteristic, Rabbit, Meatball, Postmortem


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Physical Characteristics and Organoleptic of Lamb b!teatball in different Postmortem and Cassava Starch Levels

Physical Characteristics and Organoleptic of Lamb b!teatball in different Postmortem and Cassava Starch Levels
Nurhayati, E., Komariah, and S. Rahayu

Meatball is one of Indonesian people favourite meat product. Lamb meatball is one alternative to improve lamb consumption. Making of meatball use to usingpre-rigor meat that is could produce tough and compact. Material for producing meatball commonly from beef but it can replace by lamb by using extender. 'The extender was cassava flour. Purpose of research was to know the physical characteristics and organoleptic of lamb meatball in different postinortern and cassava starch levels. The research was carried out at Large Ruminant Laboratory, Animal Science Faculty, Bogor Agricultural University and Center of Food and Nutrition (PAU) Bogor Agricultural University. Research has been done from February until iMarch 2009. Matters that use in this research were lamb fi-om MT Farm, Ciampea. Flavor adding with cassava flour as an extender, salt, ice, and other flavor. The parameter stands for pH and DMA meat, elasticity, hardness, rendement, and economical aspect. Organoleptic test stands for texture, smell, elasticity, colour, taste, and general perception. The research were using two hours, four hours, and six lrourspostmortem with lo%, 20%, and 30% tapioca levels. Factorial Completely Randomized Design 3x3 was used with three repetitions. The significant result was tested with Polynomial Ortogonal. Organoleptic were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis. Significant  result was tested with Gibbons The result indicate that postnrortem up to six hours and 30% tapioca level was not influenced significantly of physical characteristics and organoleptic lamb meatball. Meatball with up to 30% tapioca levels more advantages in economical aspect, because production cost that used it cheaper an grain meatball total result more.
Keywords : meatball, lamb, postnzortem, tapioca


Sorghum as Substitute of Cornwith Addition Fern Water PlantMeal (Azolla pinnata) on Quail Diet toMDA and Quality of Quail Eggs

FEBRINITA ULFAH. Sorghum as Substitute of Cornwith Addition Fern Water PlantMeal (Azolla pinnata) on Quail Diet toMDA and Quality of Quail Eggs. Supervised by RITA MUTIA dan WIDYA HERMANA.

This research aimed to study the effect of sorghum on laying quail with addition of fern water (Azolla pinnata) meal on the quality of Japanese Quail Egg and values of MDA. The experiment used 30 laying quails aged 44 days. This observations used descriptive Analysis by comparing between treatments. The treatments were control diet of corn (P0), treatment diet of sorghum (P1),treatment diet of sorghum + 1% Azolla pinnata meal (P2), treatment diet of sorghum + 2% Azolla pinnata meal (P3), and treatment diet of sorghum + 3% Azolla pinnata meal (P4). This research obtained about performace, egg weight, yolk weight, albumin weight, shell weight, shell thickness, yolk colour, Haugh Unit (HU) and values MDA (Malondialdehyde) on yolk egg. The result of this experiment showed that addition ofAzolla meal to sorghum proven to balance the carotenoid content indicated in the yolk score, not interfere with performance of quail, and antioxidant activity produced by Azollameal (beta-caroten).

Keyword : Azolla pinnata, egg quality, MDA (Malondialdehyde), sorghum


Study on Protection to Infectious Bronchitis Virus Provide by ND-IB Lived Vaccine on Broiler

FITRI LUTHFIANTI NUR ANNISAA. Study on Protection to Infectious Bronchitis Virus Provide by ND-IB Lived Vaccine on Broiler. Supervised by SRI MURTINI and RETNO DAMAJANTI SOEJOEDONO.

Objective of the study is to measure the antibody titer, clinical sign, and post mortal lesion of broilers vaccinated with Newcastle Disease-Infectious Bronchitis (ND-IB) live vaccine (LaSota H-120) and challenge with Infectious Bronchitis virus (IBV) field isolates. As much as 100 DOCs were use in this study. The maternal antibody derivates were taken from 20 broilers on the 1st day of experiment. The rest of the broilers divided into 4 groups (K1, K2, K3, and K4). Each group consisted 20 broilers. Group K1 and K2 were unvaccinated. Group K3 and K4 were vaccinated on the 2nd day according to the manufacturer procedure. Blood samples from unvaccinated and vaccinated group were taken on 7th, 14th, and 22nd day. Antibody titer was measured by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Challenge was carried out on 14th day (12th day post vaccination) to group K2 and K4. The result showed that chickens have high maternal antibody titer. The combination of intranasal and oral vaccination was not able to produced protective antibody against IB. Vaccination was able to reduced lethargy sign and cloudy airsacs. The clinical signs and post mortal lesions were more severe on K2 group than K4 group.


Keywords: broiler, ELISA, Infectious Bronchitis, LaSota H-120, vaccine

Studi Pengembangan Bahan Pengawet Bakso Berbasis Asam dan atau Garam Asetat

Preservative is one of food additives that serve to prolong shelf life of food products, especially for perishable foods. One of preservatives has been use widely is acetic acid. Besides acetic acid, this study also used acetate salt as meatball preservatives. Meatball is a perishable food. It only has less than 24 hours shelf life in room storage condition. This study aims to extend meatball shelf life at least 3 days at room storage. The initial stage of this study is to determine type of preservatives that can prolong meatball’s shelf life. As the result, solution of acetic acid and garlic (Allium sativum L.) can extend meatball shelf life for 3 days. The preservatives solution made by combined acetic acid (25%) and sliced, mashed, and blended garlic with ratio 70:30. Acetic salt can not extend the meatball’s shelf life. The second stage is to determine the optimum concentration and to analyze the pH value, titratable acidity, texture and total microbes of preserved meatball. The preservatives solution is applied in two methods, coat and boil the meatball with the solution. Based on hedonic test, the best method of preservation is coating meatball with preservatives solution made by acetic acid with blended garlic.


keywords : meatball, acetic acid, preservative

Behaviour of Broiler Chickens in Closed House under Different Room Temperatures and Light Colours

Behaviour of Broiler Chickens in Closed House under Different Room Temperatures and Light Colours
 Andisuro, R., R. Afnan, and H.S. Iman Rahayu

Broiler chicken industry as a main meat producer has a huge potency to fulfil the quality and quantity of protein requirement for the human. A good management aspect such as house temperature and light regulation plays an important role in raising broiler. High ambient temperature in Indonesia with its large fluctuation becomes constraint in raising broiler. Light regime includes intensity, duration and colour is still limited applied by the broiler farmer as they apply opened house. Raising broiler in closed house gives an opportunity to regulate temperature and lightinside the house. Temperature and light stimulate the broiler behaviours that affect broiler performances. This experiment aimed to study the effect of temperature and light regulation on broiler behaviours. It was designed with a 2x2 factorial complete randomized with different house temperatures and lights. House temperatures were adjusted to 23 oC (normal) and 30 oC (heat stress) whereas light was set to red and white. Data collection was done in 4 times of ages within 6 days interval (15, 21, 27 and 33 days). The variant of data was analyzed (ANOVA) and computed with suitable mathematical model observed. That watched behaviour were eating, drinking, locomoting, panting and resting. The housing temperature significantly affected panting (age of 15, 21 and 27 days) and drinking behaviour (age 21 days) as well as locomotive behaviour (age of 21 days). Light colours and their interaction with housing temperature did not significantly affect the behaviours of broilers (P > 0,05). Presumably, the light intensity did not adequate to influence behaviours of broiler chickens.

Keywords: Behaviours, Broiler Chicken, Temperature and Light Colour.


Broiler Laying Behavior Maintained Layer Phase in free-range systems at dry season

BUDIMAN TANDIABANG. Broiler Laying Behavior Maintained Layer Phase in free-range systems at dry season . Under the guidance of Prof. Dr. Ir . Hj . Sahari Banong M.S , and Dr. Ir . Wempie Pakiding , M. Sc.

The aim of this study was to observed the behavior patterns of laying chicken during the summer . In this study used 24 laying hens strain Lohman Brown age 52 weeks ( phase layer ) were maintained in rotational and continuous , each paddock placed 4 hen, so the amount of chicken for each maintenance system is 12 hen for 3 paddock . This study was analyzed by t- test using Excel program and qualitative data were analyzed descriptively . Parameters observed among others ; foraging, resting, walking, drinking, feeding, nesting, scratching, dust bathing. The results showed that the average grazing activities performed in the mornig and afternoon breaks and activities , drinking ,dust bathing, and scratching did during the day, while walking and feeding activities conducted evenly throughout the day and only done nesting activity ranging from 06.00 up to 10.00 am. The conclusion of this study was conduct grazing , resting , feeding and nesting behavior is a dominant aspect of chickens reared on free-range system with the distribution of daily behavior patterns show relatively similar between continuous and rotational treatments.

Keywords : Free Range , Lohmann Brown , Continuous , Rotational , Behavior


The Physical Characteristic of Market Vegetable Waste Wafer and that Palatability for Sheep Livestock

The Physical Characteristic of Market Vegetable Waste Wafer and that Palatability for Sheep Livestock
F. P. Syananta, Y. Retnani, L. Herawati

Vegetable waste is part of vegetables or vegetables that are discarded. The weakness of this vegetable market waste, among others, is perishable, voluminous (bulky) and the availability was fluctuated so the processing technology is needed to make this vegetable waste to be durable, easy to stored and to be given to dorbia. To solve this problem vegetable waste could be formed as wafer. The objective of this experiment was to determine the physical characteristic and palatability of vegetable market waste after formed as a wafer. The experimental design used in this research was Completely Randomized Design with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were : R1: maize straw 100%; R2: maize straw 75% + mungbeans sprout waste 25%; R3: maize straw 50% + mungbeans sprout waste 25% + cauliflowers 25%; R4: maize straw 25% + mungbeans sprout waste 50% + cauliflowers 25%; R5: maize straw 25% + mungbeans sprout waste 25% + cauliflowers 50%. Wafer’s variables measured were water activity, water absorption, density and palatability. The results of this research indicated that the treatment of wafer made from vegetable waste gave significant effect to the water activity (P<0 .08="" a="" absorption.="" absorption="" activity="" and="" based="" characteristic="" compare="" density.="" effect="" experimental="" for="" from="" gave="" have="" highest="" highly="" lowest="" market="" most="" o:p="" of="" on="" other="" palatability="" palatable="" physical="" r1="" r3="" r4="" r5="" ration="" result="" sheep.="" significant="" the="" to="" treatments="" vegetable="" wafer="" was="" waste="" water="" were="">

Keywords : physical characteristic, wafer palatability, wafer and vegetable waste


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Body Size and Shape of Arab Chicken, Kampong Chicken and Pelung Chicken Based on Principal Component Analysis

Body Size and Shape of Arab Chicken, Kampong Chicken and Pelung Chicken Based on Principal Component Analysis
Kurniawati, A., R. H. Mulyono and C. Sumantri

Differences of linier variable of body size was found between two observed chicken species based on T2-Hotteling statistical test (P<0 -0.31="" -0.59="" .01="" 0.41.="" 0.49="" 0.51="" 0.54="" 0.56="" 0.57="" 0.74.="" 0.77="" 0.92="" abroad="" analysis="" and="" arab="" are="" assumed="" body="" both="" broiler.="" broiler="" chicken.="" chicken="" coefficient="" comb="" component="" correlation="" derived="" differences="" different="" direction="" eigen="" elgium="" femur.="" femur="" from="" had="" height="" indicated="" indonesian="" is="" kampong="" large="" layer.="" length="" medium="" native="" o:p="" of="" origin="" originally="" pelung.="" pelung="" positive="" principal="" respectively.="" respectively="" result="" selected="" selection="" shape="" shows="" similar="" size.="" size="" that="" the="" this="" tibia="" to="" type="" value="" vector="" vectors="" was="" were="" which="" wing="" with="">

Key words: Arab chicken, Kampong chicken, Pelung chicken, T2-Hotteling, Principal Component Analysis, size, shape, correlation


Size, Shape and Prediction of Body Weight Garut Sheep, Thin-Tailed Sheep and Fat-Tailed Sheep

Size, Shape and Prediction of Body Weight Garut Sheep, Thin-Tailed Sheep and Fat-Tailed Sheep
Tirtosiwi, B. U., R. H. Mulyono and I. Inounu

Garut sheep, Thin-Tailed sheep and Fat-Tailed sheep are breeds of sheep that have the potential to be bred in Indonesia. This research is carried out to measure the size and shape of sheep by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and to estimate the body of Garut sheep, Thin-tailed sheep and Fat-tailed sheep by using Principal Component Regression Analysis (PCRA). T2-Hotelling results showed that sheeps observed were significantly different between breeds. This is due to differences in groups of sheeps. Principal Component Analysis results showed that size of Garut sheep more higher than Thin-Tailed sheep and Fat-Tailed sheep. The differences of shape was indicates the differences genetics of sheep were observed. Slices of crowd chart of Garut sheep and Thin-Tailed sheep higher than Garut sheep and Fat-Tailed sheep. That was suitable with the origin of Garut sheep are cross by Merino sheep, Kaapstad sheep and Thin-Tailed sheep so that Garut sheep and Thin-Tailed sheep have more kindsip than Garut sheep and Fat-Tailed sheep. Principal Component Regression Analysis results showed that the primary identity for body measurements of Garut sheep, Thin-Tailed sheep and Fat-Tailed sheep were chest girth (X9) and it was the most influential variable to predict body weight of Garut sheep, Thin-Tailed sheep and Fat-Tailed sheep. That was showed by highest elasticity values of chest girth (X9), which each gained at 0,344; 0,420; 0.414 for rams of Garut sheep, Thin-Tailed sheep and Fat-Tailed sheep and ewes at 0,446; 0,220; 0,739. Elasticity obtained showed that each increase in one cm in chest girth (X9) in rams of Garut sheep, Thin-Tailed sheep and Fat-Tailed sheep will each increase body weight 190,96 g; 187,58 g; 163,37 g; while ewes will increase the body weight of 169,47 g; 75,56 g; 254,93 g. Beside chest girth (X9), rump width (X7) and cannon circumference (X10) has considerable effect on body weight of Garut sheep, Thin-Tailed sheep and Fat-Tailed sheep. That was indicates increase of one cm rump width (X7) and cannon circumference (X10) rams of Garut sheep, Thin-Tailed sheep and Fat-Tailed sheep will increase body weight 486,65 g; 425,99 g; 457,98 g and 1.364,87 g; 1.137,01 g; 679,58 g; while ewes will increase body weight amounted to 680,61 g; 298,67 g; 690,05 g and 934,55 g; 116,59 g; 586,51 g.

Keywords: Sheep, T2-Hotelling, Principal Component Analysis, Principal Component Regression Analysis, Elasticity


Morphometric Measurement of Local Sheep with Different Growth Rate

Morphometric Measurement of Local Sheep with Different Growth Rate
Aji, I.B., M. Yamin., and C. Sumantri

Local sheep fattening agribussines has been recently more growing. One of significant problems in the business is selection of lambs to be raised. It is therefore study of local sheep’s morphometric measurement at different level of growth rate is important to conduct. Rapid selection is used to get different sheep growth in daily gain and physical appearances as the selection criteria. Sheep with daily gain above 150 gram/day/head are categorized as fast growing sheep and the daily gain under 70 gram/day/head as the slow growing group. The results show that chest circumference, body length, head length, upper neck circumference, body height, upper tail circumference, neck length, and chest depth were significantly higher at fast growing sheep than in slow growing group. similar results were found that circumference of foreleg and neck to thoracic limb either at left or right sides, and circumference of left pastern were significantly higher at fast growing sheep than slow growing group. This may indicate that the parameters can be used as selection criteria for fast growing sheep. In the other hand tail length, muzzle circumference, mid tail circumference, end tail circumference, circumference of right pastern, circumference of hind legs either at left or right sides were similar between fast growing sheep and slow growing sheeps, meaning that those six parameters might not be used as the selection criteria for fast growing sheep. Almost all parameters showed positive correlation between one and the other parameters especially with weight.

Key words: Sheep, fast growing, low growing


Individual Variation on the Success of Garut Ram Frozen Semen Production

MULYANI NOFRIZA. Individual Variation on the Success of Garut Ram Frozen Semen Production. Supervised by R IIS ARIFIANTINI and MUCHIDIN NOORDIN.

This research aims to study the individual variation on the successful Garut ram frozen semen production. The semen obtained from four sexuality mature Garut ram (Sinta, Wulung, Jabar, Batara), belong to Artificial Insemination Centre (AIC) at Lembang, Bandung. The semen was collected using artificial vagina and evaluated macro- and microscopically. The semen was diluted with andromed, equilibrate, packed into 0.25 mL mini straw, and freeze above liquid nitrogen vapor according to AIC standard procedures. The result of this experiment indicated there were differences in raw semen quality. Wulung demonstrated the highest raw semen motility (82.50%) and Batara has the lowest raw semen motility (75.50%). There were no differences in post thawing motility (PTM) in all rams. The PTM were between 40.00-41.67%. The recovery rate of sperms obtained from Batara ram was significantly higher than the others. This research concluded that there was an individual variation on the quality of Garut rams frozen semen.
Key words: frozen semen, freezing capability, Garut ram, recovery rate


Viability and Fertility of Spermatozoa in Modified BTS and Zorlesco Extender Stored in Different Places for Swine Artificial Insemination Program

NI LUH GDE SUMARDANI. Viability and Fertility of Spermatozoa in Modified BTS and Zorlesco Extender Stored in Different Places for Swine Artificial Insemination Program. Under the direction of TUTY L. YUSUF and POLLUNG H. SIAGIAN.

The optimal storage temperature for preserve boar semen is 17 - 18 °C. The temperature fluctuations can decrease sperm viability. The aim of this study was to obtain a boar semen extender for Artificial Insemination (AI) at certain distance area. The observation on viability and fertility of spermatozoa in Modified Beltsville Thawing Solution (M-BTS) and Zorlesco (M-Zorlesco) extender in different storage, and the effect of storage system i.e : room temperature, refrigerator, and styrofoam box were conducted for this purpose. Semen from three years old Yorkshire boar (n = 3) were collected twice a week by hand method. Semen characteristics and their quality were evaluated macro and microscopically. These semen were added with M-BTS and M-Zorlesco extender up to fourfold volume (ratio 1 : 3). This is base on the assumption of AI dose of 2 - 3 x 109cells/80mL. All samples were divided into three tube and stored at room temperature (22 °C), styrofoam box (18 °C) and refrigerator (15 °C), and their motility and viability were evaluated every six hours for 42 hours observation.

The results showed that fresh semen characteristics were good, with sperm motility of 65.56 ± 3.91% and viability of 87.70 ± 6.34 %. The best extender found in this experiment of 42 hours observation was M-Zorlesco extender with average sperm motility of 54.76 ± 12.76% in styrofoam box and 54.17 ± 12.60% in refrigerator. On the other hand, their average of sperm motility in BTS (control) of 49.37 ± 17.37% in styrofoam box and 50.19 ± 17.36 % in refrigerator were slightly lower than that of the former one, but statistically it is not significant. The semen diluted in M-Zorlesco extender stored for 42 hours in styrofoam box that showed the best result. This show that quality of boar’s sepermatozoa can be maintained at 15 - 18 oC. Conception rate with semen diluted in M-Zorlesco and M-BTS extenders were high (83.33%).

In conclusion, M-Zorlesco extender can maintain the quality of spermatozoa stored in styrofoam box and refrigerator for about 42 hours with sperm motility 40 - 50%, and the styrofoam box can be used as an alternatif container for insemination program in the field.
Keywords: Viability, fertility, extender, storage, boar sperm


The Effect of Palm Kernel Meal Usage on Efficiency of Protein Usage on Female Quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) Grower Phase.

THE EFFECT OF PALM KERNEL MEAL USAGE ON EFFICIENCY OF PROTEIN USAGE ON FEMALE QUAIL (Coturnix coturnix Japonica) GROWER PHASE

Palm Kernel Meal (PKM) is a by-product of palm kernel processing into palm kernel oil which is quite a lot and potential as poultry feed. This study aims to determine the effect of palm kernel to 37.5% on the efficiency of feed use and efficiency of protein use in quail. This study uses a 21-day age quail that is kept until the age of 42 days as many as 140 tails. Rations are prepared using several ingredients such as corn, fish meal, rice bran, soybean meal, dicalcium phosphate, CaCO3, lysine, methionine, and PKM. The research design used was Completely Randomized Design (RAL) consisting of 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments were T0 (ration containing 0% PKM), T1 (ration containing 12.5% PKM), T2 (ration containing 25% PKM) and T3 (ration containing 37.5% PKM). The variables observed were feed consumption, body weight gain, protein consumption, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio. Data obtained by Various analysis (ANOVA) and if there is progression with Duncan Multiple Range Test. The result of this research indicated that it was very important (P<0 25="" and="" as="" at="" be="" because="" but="" concluded="" consumption="" control.="" efficiency="" feed="" font="" gain.="" in="" intake="" is="" it="" kernel="" level="" may="" meal="" not="" palm="" produces="" protein="" quail="" ration="" relatively="" same="" significant="" significantly="" still="" that="" the="" to="" used="" was="" weight="" which="">

Keywords : palm kernel meal, quail, protein efficiency


The Effect of Addition Probio FM Probiotic In Drinking Water on Dry Matter, Crude Fiber And Crude Protein Digestibility of Local Rabbit

THE EFFECT OF ADDITION PROBIO FM PROBIOTIC IN DRINKING WATER ON DRY MATTER, CRUDE FIBER AND CRUDE PROTEIN DIGESTIBILITY OF LOCAL RABBIT

The addition of probio FM Probiotic in drinking water is an effort to improve the microorganisms that can help performance of the rabbit digestive. This study was conducted to determine the effect of addition probio FM probiotic in drinking water on dry matter, crude fiber and crude protein digestibility of local rabbit. This study used 3-4 months 4 male local rabbit. Latin Square Design was used on this sudy with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were P0 (Drinking water without probiotic), P1 (Drinking water mixed probio FM 0,5 ml/100 ml drinking water), P2 (Drinking water mixed probio FM 1 ml/100 ml drinking water), and P3 (Drinking water mixed probio FM 1,5 ml/100 ml drinking water). The variable observed was dry matter, crude fiber and crude protein digestibility of local rabbit. Data were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the significant difference continued with Least Significant Difference (LSD) test. The result showed that the treatments had significant difference (P<0 but="" consumption="" difference="" drinking="" no="" of="" on="" significant="" water="">0,05) on dry matter, crude fiber and crude protein digestibility of rabbit. The conclusion is the addition of probio FM probiotics until 1,5 ml/100 ml drinking water did not improve the dry matter, crude fiber and crude protein digestibility of local rabbit.

Keywords : Probio FM Probiotic, Digestibility, Local Rabbit


The Effect of Fermented Palm Kernel Cake With Some Probiotics Bacteria on The Growth of Broiler Chicks

THE EFFECT OF FERMENTED PALM KERNEL CAKE WITH SOME PROBIOTICS BACTERIA ON THE GROWTH OF BROILER CHICKS

Abstract

The aim of this research was to study the effect of fermented palm kernel cake with some probiotics bacteria on the growth of broiler chicks. The research was conducted at the Laboratory and housing farm in Faculty of Animal Science Jambi University, from September 17, 2015 to October 22, 2016. One hundred sixty DOC, fermented palm kernel cake with probiotics bacteria were used in this study. The parameters measured were feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The experimental design was used completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments are P0= diet without fermented palm kernel cake with probiotics, P1= diet containing 20% fermented palm kernel cake with Streptococcus thermophillus, P2= diet containing 20% fermented palm kernel cake with Bacillus cereus, P3= diet containing 20% fermented palm kernel cake with Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Data were analyzed used analysis of variance, if there is a significant effect of treatment then continued with Duncan test. The results showed that fermented palm kernel cake with probiotics bacteria significantly (P<0 .05="" and="" body="" but="" conversion="" effect="" feed="" gain="" intake="" no="" on="" p1="" ratio="" signifficant="" treatment="" weight="">0.05). In conclusion, 20% fermented palm kernel cake with Bacillus cereus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus can be used on broiler feed without prevented the growth.


Key Words : Fermented palm kernel cake, probiotics bacteria, broiler, growth.

Effect of Fermented Palm Kernel Cake With Some Probitics Bacteria Toward of Ammonia Emmision (Nh3) of Broiler

EFFECT OF FERMENTED PALM KERNEL CAKE WITH SOME PROBITICS BACTERIA TOWARD OF AMMONIA EMMISION (NH3) OF BROILER

The aim of this research was to study the effect of fermented palm kernel cake with some probiotics bacteria toward of ammonia emmision (NH3) of broiler. One hundred sixty DOC, fermented palm kernel cake with probiotics bacteria were used in this study. The experimental design was used completely randimized design (CRD) with 4 treatment and 5 repeating. The treatments are P0 = diet without fermented palm kernel cake with probiotics, P1= diet containing 20% fermented palm kernel cake with Streptoccus thermophilus, P2= diet containing 20% fermented palm kernel cake with Bacillus Cereus, P3= diet containing 20% fermented palm kernel cake with Lactobacillus bulgaricus. The excreta collection that doing on 30th day for measurement of ammonia (NH3), water content, pH (acidily degree), and nitrogen content (N). Data were analyzed usedanalysis of variance. Differencess between (P≤0,05) tested by Duncan test. The result showed that fermented palm kernel cake with probiotics bacteria significantly (P≤0,05) reduce the ammonia emission, moisture content, pH(acidly degree) and nitrogen content. From result of this research it can be concluded that the use of fermented palm kernel with some probiotics bacteria can reduce amonia emission but the the best way to reduce amonia was 20% of fermented palm kernel cake with Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

Key Words : NH3, excrete, probitic, broiler


Utilization Of Fermented Cocoa pods in feed on growing goat

ABSTRACT. Wina J Sihombing, 2008. Utilization Of Fermented Cocoa pods in feed on growing goat under supervision of Mrs.Tri Hesti Wahyuni MSc, as supervisor and Mr. Iskandar sembiring, MM also Mr. Junjungan Sianipar MP as co supervisor.

The research have been done at the Research Institute for Goat Production Sei Putih. This research was done for three months, since April 2008 until June 2008. The purpose of this research is to find out and to learn the cocoa bark fermentation usage level of feed toward the feed consumption, average daily gain, and feed convertion ration in livestock of growing goat. This research used boerka goat with average body weight 12.95 + 1.29 kg. The research method was completely randomized design (CRD) which was consist of four treatments and five replication those were T0, without fermented cocoa pods, T1 using fermented cocoa pods for 20 percent, T2 using fermented cocoa pods for 40 percent, T3 using fermented cocoa pods for 60 percent. The result show that the feed consumption g/goat/day (505.86; 517.29; 488.98; and 391.99 respectively). The average daily gain about g/goat/day (89.52; 89.52; 77.14 and 47.86 respectively). Feed convertion ration (8.73; 8.99; 10.49 and 8.84 respectively). The result of this research showh that T0, T1, T2, and T3 were significantly differences in feed consumption, average daily gain, and no significantly in feed convertion ratio. Based on this research that can be concluded that the Utilization Of Fermented Cocoa pods in feed on growing goat can be recommended used until 20 – 40 percent in feed, that followed with giving concentrate feed amount 30 percent.


Tape Kulit Buah Kakao Sebagai Pakan Ternak

Sebagai Pakan Ternak Kambing Kakao merupakan salah satu komoditi andalan perkebunan yang peranannya cukup penting bagi perekonomian nasional, khususya sebagai penyedia lapangan pekerjaan, sumber pendapatan dan devisa Negara. Disamping itu kakao juga mendorong pengembangan agroindustri. Seiring dengan usulan Menteri Muda Urusan peningkatan Produksi Tanaman Keras (Ir. Hasjrul Harahap) dan keputusan Presiden R.I. Nomor 041/B/Tahun 1987 tanggal 3 April 1987, perkembangan perkebunan kakao terus meningkat (Sunanto, 1992). Perkembangan areal dan produksi perkebunan kakao di Indonesia dapat dilihat pada Tabel 2.


 Keterangan : *Data sementara PR = Perkebunan Rakyat PBN = Perkebunan Besar Negara PBS = Perkebunan Besar Swasta Buah kakao yang terdiri dari 74% kulit buah, 2% plasenta dan 24% biji. Menurut Baharuddin (2007), bahwa kulit buah kakao dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai pakan ternak ruminansia. Komposisi zat gizi kulit buah kakao dapat dilihat pada Tabel 3. 
Table 3. Komposisi zat gizi kulit buah kakao

Selanjutnya Baharuddin (2007) mengatakan bahwa sebelum digunakan sebagai pakan, limbah kulit buah kakao perlu difermentasi terlebih dahulu untuk menurunkan kadar serat kasar, lemak, lignin, dan theobromine yang merupakan faktor pembatas bagi penggunaan kulit buah kakao, serta meningkatkan kadar proteinnya.



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Parameter Penelitian Performa Ternak Kambing

Konsumsi pakan
Tingkat konsumsi (voluntary feed intake) adalah jumlah makanan yang terkonsumsi oleh hewan bila bahan makanan tersebut diberikan secara adlibitum. Konsumsi adalah faktor essensial yang merupakan dasar untuk hidup dan menentukan produksi. Tingkat konsumsi bahan kering dipengaruhi oleh berbagai faktor antara lain : faktor hewan yaitu: bobot badan, umur dan kondisi, stress yang diakibatkan oleh lingkungan: makanan yaitu sifat fisik dan komposisi kimia makanan yang dapat mempengaruhi kecernaan yang selanjutnya mempengaruhi konsumsi (Parakkasi,1995).

Jumlah konsumsi bahan kering pakan dipengaruhi beberapa variabel meliputi, jumlah pakan yang tersedia dan komposisi kimia serta kualitas bahan pakan. Salah satu yang menjadi penentu tingkat konsumsi adalah keseimbangan zat makanan dan palatabilitas. Tingkat perbedaan konsumsi juga dipengaruhi oleh beberapa faktor antara lain faktor ternak ( bobot badan, umur, tingkat kecernaan pakan, kualitas pakan dan palatabilitas).

Menurut Departemen Pertanian (2002) yang menumbuhkan daya tarik dan merangsang ternak untuk mengkonsumsi pakan adalah palatabilitas. Makanan yang berkualitas baik tingkat konsumsinya lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan makanan berkualitas rendah, sehingga kualitas pakan yang relatif sama maka tingkat konsumsinya juga relatif sama (Parakkasi, 1995). Pada penelitian yang dilakukan Sianipar et al. (2007) yang menggunakan pakan silase kulit buah kakao pada kambing sedang tumbuh diperoleh rataan konsumsi pakan sebesar 452.25 g/ekor/hari.

Pertambahan Bobot Badan
Pertambahan bobot badan dapat dikatakan pertumbuhan dimana merupakan suatu penomena universal yang sangat kompleks, mulai dari fertilisasi, pembelahan, perbanyakan sel serta differensiasi sel-sel (Maynard et al., 1979). Selanjutnya dinyatakan bahwa pertumbuhan murni yaitu menyangkut pertumbuhan jaringan dalam otot dan tulang serta organ-organ tubuh. Tillman et al. (1983) mengemukakan bahwa umumnya pertumbuhan dinyatakan dengan pengukuran kenaikkan bobot badan dengan melakukan penimbangan berulang-ulang dan dinyatakan dengan petambahan bobot badan tiap hari, tiap minggu atau tiap waktu lainnya (tiap sepuluh hari, tiap bulan). Pada penelitian Sianipar et al. (2007) yang menggunakan pakan silase kulit buah kakao pada kambing sedang tumbuh diperoleh rataan pertambahan bobot badan sebesar 61.55 g/ekor/hari.

Konversi pakan
Konversi pakan adalah perbandingan antara jumlah yang dikonsumsi pada waktu tertentu dengan yang dihasilkan (pertambahan bobot badan atau produksi yang dihasilkan) dalam kurun waktu yang sama. Konversi pakan merupakan indikator teknis yang dapat menggambarkan tingkat efisiensi penggunaan pakan, semakin rendah angka konversi pakan berarti semakin baik karena pakan yang digunakan akan semakin sedikit dan nantinya akan menghemat biaya (Anggorodi, 1979).

Faktor yang mempengaruhi konversi ransum yaitu lingkungan (suhu, penyakit, makanan dan minuman), kemampuan genetik, nilai gizi ransum dan tingkat energi ransum (Neshum et al., 1979). Konversi ransum diukur dari jumlah bahan kering yang dikonsumsi dibagi dengan unit pertambahan bobot badan persatuan waktunya. Konversi ransum khususnya pada ternak ruminansia dipengaruhi oleh kualitas pakan, pertambahan bobot badan dan nilai kecernaan. Dengan memberikan kualitas pakan yang baik ternak akan tumbuh lebih cepat dan lebih baik konversi ransumnya (Martawidjaya et al., 1999). Pada penelitian yang dilakukan Sianipar et al. (2007) yang menggunakan pakan silase kulit buah kakao pada kambing sedang tumbuh diperoleh rataan konversi pakan sebesar 7.35.


Pakan Ternak Kambing

Kebutuhan ternak akan pakan dicerminkan oleh kebutuhannya terhadap nutrisi. Jumlah nutrisi setiap harinya sangat tergantung pada jenis ternak, umur, fase pertumbuhan, kondisi tubuh dan lingkungan tempat hidupnya serta bobot badannya (Tomaszewska et al., 1993). Pemberian pakan yang tidak sesuai dengan kebutuhan gizi ternak dapat menyebabkan defisiensi zat makanan sehingga ternak mudah terserang penyakit. Penyediaan pakan harus diupayakan secara terus-menerus dan sesuai dengan standart gizi menurut status ternak yang dipelihara (Cahyono, 1998).

Untuk memperoleh pertumbuhan ternak kambing yang baik sangatlah perlu diperhatikan kandungan zat-zat makanan yang dikandung oleh pakan. Bahan pakan harus mengandung zat-zat makanan seperti protein, lemak, karbohidrat, mineral, dan vitamin-vitamin, serta air yang dibutuhkan ternak. Kebutuhan zat-zat makanan untuk kambing dapat dilihat pada Tabel 1.


Untuk memperoleh pertumbuhan optimum perlu diperhatikan zat-zat makanan yang diperlukan oleh seekor ternak (Anggorodi, 1979), yang disesuaikan dengan tujuan produksi dari ternak tersebut. Untuk memenuhi kekurangan zat makanan yang diperoleh kambing dari hijauan, maka dapat diberikan makanan penguat (konsentrat) dengan jumlah 200-300 g perhari dengan kandungan protein kasarnya 13-14% yang dapat meningkatkan pertambahan berat badan kambing (Speddy, 1980).

Ternak ruminansia harus mengkonsumsi hijauan sebanyak 10% dari bobot badannya setiap hari dan konsentratnya sekitar 1.5 – 2 % dari jumlah tersebut termasuk suplementasi vitamin dan mineral. Oleh karena itu hijauan dan sejenisnya terutama rumput dan dari berbagai jenis spesies merupakan sumber energi utama ternak ruminansia (Pilliang, 1997).

Ransum ternak ruminansia umumnya terdiri dari hijauan dan konsentrat, pemberian ransum berupa kombinasi dari kedua bahan itu akan memberi peluang terpenuhinya zat-zat gizi. Namun bisa juga ransum terdiri dari hijauan, maka biaya relatif lebih murah tetapi produksi yang tinggi sulit dicapai. Sedangkan pemberian ransum yang hanya terdiri dari konsentrat saja akan memungkinkan tercapainya produksi yang tinggi, tetapi biaya ransum lebih mahal dan kemungkinan terjadinya gangguan pencernaan (Siregar, 1994).


Pencernaan Pada Ruminansa

Pencernaan adalah rangkaian proses yang terjadi dalam alat pencernaan sampai memungkinkan terjadi penyerapan Maynard dan Loosly (1969). Ternak ruminansia mampu memanfaatkan pakan berkadar serat kasar tinggi sebagai sumber nutrien untuk produksinya Ini disebabkan karena ternak ruminansia memiliki mikroba rumen yang dapat merombak bahan makanan yang berkadar serat kasar tinggi menjadi lebih sederhana Parakkasi (1995).

Bahan makanan yang defisiensi akan zat-zat makanan esensial kecernaannya akan lebih rendah dibanding dengan zat-zat makanan seimbang. Salah satu hal yang mempengaruhi kecernaan suatu bahan adalah: kemampuan pakan untuk dapat dipergunakan oleh mikroba rumen dan suhu lingkungan (Maynard dan Loosly, 1969).

Proses utama dari pencernaan adalah secara mekanik, enzimatik ataupun mikrobial. Proses mekanik terdiri dari mastikasi makanan dalam mulut dan gerakangerakan saluran pencernaan yang dihasilkan oleh kontraksi otot sepanjang usus. Pencernaan secara enzimatik dilakukan oleh enzim yang dihasilkan oleh sel-sel dalam tubuh hewan yang berupa getah-getah pencernaan. Mikroorganisme (bakteri dan protozoa) hidup dalam beberapa bagian dalam saluran pencernaan dan yang penting dalam proses pencernaan ruminansia. Pencernaan oleh mikroorganisme ini juga dilakukan secara enzimatik yang enzimnya dihasilkan oleh sel-sel mikroorganisme. Tempat utama pencernaan mikrobia ini adalah retikulum sampai rumen pada ruminansia (Tillman et al., 1986).


Pertumbuhan Ternak Kambing Secara Umum

Laju pertumbuhan setelah disapih ditentukan oleh beberapa faktor antara lain potensi pertumbuhan dari masing-masing individu ternak dan pakan yang tersedia (Cole, 1982). Potensi pertumbuhan dalam periode ini dipengaruhi oleh faktor bangsa dan jenis kelamin. Pola pertumbuhan ternak tergantung pada sistem manajemen yang dipakai, tingkat nutrisi yang tersedia, kesehatan dan iklim. Laju pertambahan bobot badan dipengaruhi oleh umur, lingkungan dan genetik dimana berat tubuh awal fase penggemukan berhubungan dengan berat dewasa. (Tomaszewska et al., 1993)

Menurut Anggorodi (1990) pertumbuhan murni mencakup dalam bentuk dan berat jaringan-jaringan pembangun seperti urat daging, tulang, jantung, otak dan semua jaringan tubuh lainnya (kecuali jaringan lemak) dan alat-alat tubuh. Pada umumnya pertumbuhan pada ternak mamalia dapat dibagi dalam dua periode utama yakni prenatal dan postnatal. Dalam masa pertumbuhan ada dua hal yang terjadi yaitu adanya kenaikan bobot badan atau komponen tubuh sampai mencapai ukuran dewasa yang disebut pertumbuhan dan adanya perubahan bentuk konformasi disebabkan oleh perbedaan laju pertumbuhan jaringan atau bagian tubuh yang berbeda dengan proses perkembangan, proses penggemukan termasuk ke dalam perkembangan (Hammond et al., 1976).

Pertumbuhan ternak dipengaruhi oleh faktor genetik dan lingkungan. Siregar (1994) mengatakan bahwa faktor genetik dan lingkungan mempengaruhi pertumbuhan baik dari segi kualitas dan kuantitas karkas kambing dengan perbandingan 20-30% : 70 - 80%. Ternak tidak akan mampu berproduksi secara optimal, apabila tidak memperoleh lingkungan yang optimal walaupun fungsi genetik cukup tinggi dan begitu juga sebaliknya. Kualitas bahan makanan dipengaruhi oleh komposisi zat makanan serta penggunaannya oleh ternak.

Menurut Sumoprastowo (1980) bahwa rata-rata berat lahir kambing lokal sebesar 1-2 kg, dan laju pertambahan berat badan ternak kambing lokal adalah sebesar 43 gram/ekor/hari. Kekurangan zat makanan memperlambat puncak pertumbuhan urat daging dan memperlambat laju penimbunan lemak, sedangkan makanan yang sempurna mempercepat terjadinya laju puncak dari keduanya (Anggorodi, 1990).

Menurut Tillman et al. (1991) pengurangan makanan akan memperlambat kecepatan pertumbuhan dan bila pengurangan makanan sangat parah akan menyebabkan hewan kehilangan berat badannya. Pertumbuhan biasanya mulai perlahan - lahan kemudian berlangsung lebih cepat dan akhirnya perlahan - lahan lagi atau sama sekali terhenti. Pola seperti ini menghasilkan kurva pertumbuhan berbentuk sigmoid (S). Tahap cepat pertumbuhan terjadi pada saat kedewasaan tubuh hampir tercapai (Anggorodi, 1990).

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Gambaran Umum Ternak Kambing Persilangan Kacang X Boer (Boerka)

Ternak kambing pertama kali dijinakkan sejak jaman prasejarah. Ternak kambing merupakan salah satu hewan yang tertua dijinakkan oleh manusia. Semua ternak kambing adalah binatang pegunungan yang hidup di lereng-lereng bukit sampai lereng yang curam (Williamson dan Payne, 1978) Ternak kambing pertama kali dipelihara didaerah pegunungan Asia Barat pada kurun waktu 8.000-7.000 SM. Jadi, sebagai ternak kambing lebih tua dari pada sapi. Diduga kambing yang dipelihara saat ini (Capra aegagrus hircus) berasal dari keturunan tiga macam kambing liar yaitu Benzoar goat atau kambing liar Eropa (Capra aegagrus), kambing liar India (Capra aegagrus blithy) dan Markhor goat atau kambing Markhor (Capra falconeri).

Persilangan yang terjadi antara ketiga jenis kambing tersebut menghasilkan keturunan yang subur (Mulyono dan Sarwono, 2004). Kambing merupakan ternak yang banyak dipelihara oleh masyarakat luas, karena memiliki sifat yang menguntungkan bagi pemeliharaannya seperti, ternak kambing mudah berkembang biak, tidak memerlukan modal yang besar dan tempat yang luas, dapat digunakan memanfaatkan tanah yang kosong dan membantu menyuburkan tanah, serta dapat dibuat sebagai tabungan (Sasroamidjojo dan Soeradji, 1978).

Hasil pengamatan pada generasi pertama (F1) persilangan kambing kacang dengan boer menunjukkan terjadi peningkatan yang nyata pada beberapa tolak ukur produktivitas. Rataan bobot sapih (umur 90 hari) kambing persilangan ini mencapai 16.22 kg lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kambing kacang sebesar 9.82 kg, sedangkan bobot badan umur 1 tahun mencapai 70-90% lebih tinggi dibandingkan kambing kacang. Pengamatan pada generasi kedua (F2) persilangan kambing kacang dengan boer secara konsisten lebih tinggi dibandingkan kambing kacang (Elieser et al., 2003).


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